Population and Housing Census 2000
About Census
Preliminary Results
Advance Results
Sample Design
Statistical Tables and Maps
Published Report
Indicators and Important tables by Provinces
Questionnaire
Indicators and Important tables by Region and Whole Kingdom

Maps Population growth rate, Population density and Sex ratio by Province
      :: Whole Kindom
      :: Central Region
      :: North Region
      :: Northeasthern Region
      :: Southern Region
Thematic Map Population and Housing 2000
Preliminary results

The preliminary results show the number of people, the number of private households, growth rate, population density and sex ratio for each region and each province, classified by municipal and non-municipal areas, as well as for the whole Kingdom of Thailand.

1. Administrative areas

Thailand has an area of 513,120 square kms. In the year 2000, it had 76 provinces, 795 districts, 81 sub districts, 7,255 tambons, and 69,866 villages. In 1993 there were three new provinces: a part of Prachin Buri Province became Sa Kaeo Province; a part of Udon Thani Province became Nong Bua Lam Phu Province; a part of Ubon Ratchathani Province became Amnat Charoen Province.

2. Size of population, annual population growth rate and distribution of population

On April 1, 2000, Thailand had a population of 60,606,947 out of which 29,844,870 were males and 30,762,077 were females. Thailand was the fourth largest country in Southeast Asia in terms of population. Indonesia had the largest size of population (209 million), followed by Vietnam (79 million) and the Philippines (74 million) (Chart 1).

Chart 1: Southeast Asia's Population

Sources: The 2000 Population and Housing Census, National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister,
Population and Rural and Urban Development Division,
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 1999
Notes: Thailand's figure was obtained on the Census Date (April 1, 2000).
Other countries' figures were estimated at the middle of 1999 (on July 1).

Thailand had a population of 8.2 million at the time of its first census in 1909 and the number increased to 17.4 million at the time of its fifth census in 1947. The first five censuses were undertaken by the Ministry of Interior. The National Statistical Office began to carry out a population census in 1960, and it has continued to do so every 10 years since then. The population was 26.3 million in 1960, 54.5 million in 1990 and 60.6 million in 2000 (Table A).

Table A: The Population of Thailand from 1909 to 2000

Year

Population

Annual growth rate

1909

8,149,487

-

1919

9,207,355

1.22

1929

11,506,207

2.23

1937

14,464,105

2.86

1947

17,442,689

1.87

1960

26,257,916

3.15

1970

34,397,374

2.70

1980

44,824,540

2.65

1990

54,548,530

1.96

2000

60,606,947

1.05

Sources: Censuses, 1909 - 1947, the Ministry of Interior, and
1960-2000, the National Statistical Office,
Office of the Prime Minister

Although the size of population increased each time a census is taken, the annual population growth rate significantly declined, according to the censuses taken by the National Statistic Office since 1960. From 1990 to 2000, the annual population growth rate was 1.05 per cent, the lowest recorded rate of intercensal growth since the first census. The annual population growth rate was 2.70 per cent from 1960 to 1970, 2.65 per cent from 1970 to 1980 and 1.96 per cent from 1980 to 1990.

Chart 2: The annual population growth rates of Thailand from 1960 to 2000

Source: The 1960-2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

Population distribution in this study is determined in two ways: 1) urban and rural distribution, where "urban" refers to municipal areas and "rural" refers to non-municipal areas; and 2) regional and provincial distribution.
In the year 2000, municipal areas had a population of 18,842,537 accounting for 31.1 per cent compared with 18.7 per cent in 19903/ (Annex, Table 1). The high rate of increase can be attributed in part to the 981 sanitary districts reclassified as Tambon municipalities in 1999. There are 1,131 municipalities at present. The population of Bangkok, which is regarded as a municipality in entirety, was 33.5 per cent of the population of all municipalities in the country in the year 2000. Nonthaburi Province had the second largest urban population, 66.4 per cent, followed by Samut Prakan Province, 63.1 per cent.

Regional population distribution

Comparison of population at regional level reveals that in the year 2000 the Northeastern Region had the largest population, 20,759,899 or 34.2 per cent. The next largest regions were the Central Region 14,101,530 or 23.3 per cent, and the Northern Region, 11,367,826 or 18.8 per cent. The South had a population of 8,057,518 or 13.3 per cent. There were 6,320,174 people in Bangkok or 10.4 per cent. Compared with the 1990 Census, the percentage of population was considerably higher in the Central Region and the Southern Region while it was lower in Bangkok, the Northern Region and Northeastern Region (Table B).

Table B: Percentage of population in different regions from 1960 to 2000

Region

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Bangkok

8.1

8.9

10.5

10.8

10.4

Central Region

23.4

21.9

21.7

22.1

23.3

Northern Region

21.8

21.8

20.2

19.4

18.8

Northeastern Region

34.2

35.0

35.0

34.9

34.2

Southern Region

12.5

12.4

12.6

12.8

13.3

Source: The 1960-2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

Considering the annual population growth rates in different regions from 1990 to 2000 (Chart 3), the Central Region had the highest rate of 1.55 per cent, followed by the Southern Region (1.45 per cent), the Northeastern Region (0.87 per cent). Bangkok and the Northern Region had the lowest annual population growth rates of 0.72 and 0.71 per cent respectively.

Chart 3: The annual population growth rates by region from 1990 to 2000

Source: The 1990 and 2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

Provincial population distribution

In the year 2000, the ten provinces with the largest population other than Bangkok were all in the Northeast, except Chiang Mai in the North and Nakhon Si Thammarat in the South. Bangkok had the highest population of 6,320,174, followed by Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Ubon Ratchathani, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Buriram, Chiang Mai, Udon Thani, Si Sa Ket and Surin respectively (Chart 4).

Chart 4: Ten provinces with largest population in 2000

Source: The 2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

The annual population growth rate between 1990 to 2000 (Map 1 and Annex, Table 2) was relatively high in some of the provinces of the Vicinity of Bangkok, namely Pathum Thani (4.84 per cent), Samut Sakhon (3.54 per cent) and Nonthaburi (3.43 per cent), and the provinces with a common border with Myanmar, namely Tak Province (3.68 per cent) and Ranong Province (3.20 per cent). Phuket in the South also had a relatively high annual growth rate of 3.63 per cent. The growth rate in every province in the North was below one per cent, except Tak and Mae Hong Son. Every province in the Northeast had a growth rate of about one per cent. Provinces in the South had higher growth rates than those in the Northeast but below two per cent. The exceptions were Phuket and Ranong.

3. Number of households and average size of household

In the year 2000, there were 15,660,667 households. The average size of household was 3.9, which was lower than in 1990 (4.4 persons per household)(Table C).

Table C: Average size of household from 1960 to 2000

Year

Average

1960

5.6

1970

5.7

1980

5.2

1990

4.4

2000

3.9

Source: The 1960-2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

In the year 2000, the average size of households in non-municipal areas was 4.0 persons, which was larger than that in municipal areas (3.7 persons). Considering regional differentials, the Northeast and the South had the largest average size of household of 4.1 persons. Bangkok and the Central Region had average household size of 3.8 and 3.7 persons respectively. The North had the smallest average size of household (3.6 persons)(Annex, Table 3).

Among the provinces, Pattani had the largest size of household (4.8 persons), followed by Narathiwat (4.6 persons). Samut Prakan had the lowest average size of household (3.3 persons).

4. Population density

Population density is determined by the average number of people per square kilometre. The population density of Thailand was 106.3 persons per km2 and 118.1 persons per km2 in 1990 and 2000 respectively (Map 2 and Annex, Table 4). At regional level, the population densities in descending order were as follows: Bangkok: 4,028.9 persons per km2, the Central Region: 137.8 persons per km2, the Northeast Region: 122.9 persons per km2, the Southern Region: 113.9 persons per km2, and the Northern Region: 67.0 persons per km2. At provincial level, Bangkok had the highest density, while the population densities of the other provinces ranged from Nonthaburi: 1,302.0 persons per km2 and Samut Prakan: 1,010.3 persons per km2 down to Mae Hong Son in the North with 16.5 persons per km2.

Chart 5 Population density from 1960 to 2000

Source: The 1960-2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister

5. Sex Ratio

The sex ratio is the number of males per 100 females. In the year 2000, the ratio was 97.0, which was lower than that in 1990 (98.5) (Table D). The number of males was lower than females partly because of the higher life expectancy at birth of females. At a lower level of aggregation the sex ratio is also affected by migration of males and females into the areas.
Considering regional differentials, the Northeast had the highest sex ratio (98.8), followed by the South (98.1), the North (97.9), the Central Region (95.8) and Bangkok (91.0) respectively.
Considering provincial differentials (Map 3 and Annex, Table 1), Mae Hong Son had the higest sex ratio (105.8), followed by Ranong (104.4). The lowest sex ratio was found in Ang Thong (90.3).

Table D: Sex Ratio from 1960 to 2000

Year

Sex Ratio

1960

100.4

1970

99.1

1980

99.3

1990

98.5

2000

97.0

Source: The 1960-2000 Population and Housing Census,
National Statistical Office, Office of the Prime Minister


More information contact

Email :
social@nso.go.th
Address : Economic and Social statistics Bureau,
National Statistical Office
Larn Luang Road, Bangkok. 10100
Tel : 282-5861 Fax : 282-5861