Gender statistics

Social Statitsics Division, National Statistical Office
Larn Laung Road, Bangkok 10100
Tel (66)(2) 282 5861 Fax (66)(2) 252 5861
Director :

Population Household and Family Health Education and Training Work/Employment Economic Status Dicision Making Crime and Violence
Key Figures

Why Gender Concerns?
Although women's contribution in national socio-economic development is crucial for Thai society, women remain unequal partners and gain unequal benefit from the development process. This is so mainly because there is inadequate gender awareness in the policy and planning process for national development as women's roles are always stereotyped by social values. Thus Thai women who account for half of the country's human resources are unavoidably devalued and overlooked.  Why gender statistics?
Gender statistics can provide the right perception of women's and men's roles in reality. They help understand the actual situation of women and men in society, and help demolish stereotypes. Gender statistics can also show inequalities to persuade policy makers to change policies, give a basis for formulation of policies effective for both women and men. Moreover, gender statistics can be used as a tool to monitor and evaluate policies and measures.

1. Population

Thailand ranks 18th in the world population 1998 and 4th in South East Asia. Between 1970 and 2000, women have slightly outnumbered the men in the total population. In 1999, women accounted for 50.2 percent of the total population and there were 99.5 men per 100 women in the country.
Table 1 : Population size by sex, 1970,1980,1990,1999 and 2000

The Balance of Women and Men
In 1999, women is slightly outnumbered than men. The number of men at age-group 0-49 year are higher than women, especially in the non-municiple area. However the men at the age over 50 is less than the women.
Table 2 : Sex ratio by area,1999

Age-Sex Structure
The age structure of the population indicates the needs for healthcare facilities, education and other services. It also regulates entries into and withdrawals from the workforce. Social relationships within a community are considerably affected by the relative numbers at each age. The population pyramids showing age-sex distribution in 1999. Population of working age (15-59 years) in the municipal area is more than in the non-municipal area, but young age (0-14 years) and elderly (60 and over) are higher.
Figure 1 : Age sex distribution in 1999
Figure 2 : Population by age group and sex,1980,1990,1999 and 2010
between 1980 and 2010, the proportional share in total population of children below 15 years decreased while that of elderly persons 60 years and over increased. The percentage share of men in the young age group is slightly higher than the corresponding share for women. On the contrary, the proportion of men in the older age group is lower than that of women. With an increase in the share of persons in the working age-group 15-59 years, the dependency ratios for both women and men have decreased over the years.   The dependency ratio is defined as the number of persons in a population who are not economically active per 100 economically active persons in that population. It is usual to use as a rough guide the ratio of the population aged 0-14 years and 60 years and over to the population in the age group 15-59 years.

Natural Growth
The decline in fertility, in combination with the better health of the population, has resulted in a reduction of the natural growth rate by half within 30 years.
Table 3: Crude Birth Rate, Crude Death Rate, Rate of Natural Growth and Total Fertility Rate, 1964-1996
Figure 3: Crude Birth Rate and Crude Death Rate, 1964 -1996

Fertility has now approached replacement level (TFR=2), that is, an average of 2 children born per woman who have completed their reproductive cycle. This means that there has been a considerable reduction in the burden of child-bearing.
Figure 4: Total Fertility Rate, 1964-1996

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the total number of livebirths per woman surviving the childbearing ages, and is calculated from the age specific fertility rates of current period.

Internal Migration
The internal migration in 1997 is approximately 5.2, the proportional of women is about 10 percent less than men. It can be seen that the rural to urban migration of women is higher than men. As the job opportunity for women to work in the factory or other services is more than men in urban.
Table 4 : Distribution of the population by sex, migration status and type, 1997  

Marital Status of Migrants
The migrants in 1994 an 1997 was almost equally. The proportion of the migrants who were either single or currently married was conciderably lower for women than for men, but ever-married is higher.  
Table 5 : Migrants aged 15 years and over by sex and marital status, 1994 and 4997  

Education of Migrants
Table 6 : Percentage distribution of migrants aged 5 years and over by sex and educational attainment,1994 and 1997
Table 7 : Percentage distribution of migrants by sex and reasons for migration, 1994 and 1997
Figure 5 : Percentage distribution of migrants aged 13 years
and over in various types of economic activitices, 1997
Table 8 : Distribution of migrants aged 13 years and over by sex and type of economic activities,1994 and 1997

Population of Elderly
Between 1993 and 1997, the population of elderly were higher for women than for men. Elder index have increased between 1993 and 1997.
Table 9 : Sex ratio of population aged 60 years and over,1993-1997
Table 10 : Number of elderly in the home 60years and over, 1994-1998

Disabled Population
Men have outnumbered the women in the total disabled population. The sex ratio of disabled persons in 1991 and 1996 was 158.2 and 139.6 respectively. It can be seen that men are more disability from accident,but women are at their birth.
Table 11: Disabled population by age group and sex, 1994 and 1996
Table 12 : Percentage distribution of disabled population by cause of disability and sex, 1996
Table 13 : Disabled population by government assistance needed and sex , 1996
Table 14: Disabled population need government assistance by kind of governmental assistance need and sex , 1996

2. Household and Family

The household is the smallest group of persons living together, taking collective decisions and making common provision for food and other essentials. The composition of a household including factors such as its size, age, sex, marital status and education of its members, are crucial in determining the roles and status of women and men within it.

Household Size
During the past three decades, household size has gradually decreased mainly because of the decline in fertility. This implies that, to some extent, the burden of taking care of a large number of household members has been reduced for women.
Table 15 : Average household size, 1965-2000

Household Structure
Nuclear family households constitute the bulk of the households in Thailand. Women in such households are usually deprived of the traditional source of child care and other support available in the extended family system.

Household Structure :

- Unrelated individuals: A single person household or a person residing with non-related person.
- Nuclear family: Husband and /or wife with /without unmarried children /unmarried relatives.
- Extended family: Husband and /or wife with married and /or unmarried children.

Figure 6: Household structure by sex of household head, 1970,1980,1990
Table 16: Percentage distribution of households by type and sex of household head, 1996

Marriage Patterns
Marriage patterns differ for women and men. Women tend to get married at an earlier age than men, and are more likely to be widowed. Compared to men, there was nearly proportion married and a smaller proportion single among women in 1990 and 1995. However, the percentage of married women, as well as married men tend to increase slightly with a decrease in the proportion of the single persons.
Table 17: Singulate mean age at first marriage, 1970, 1980 and 1990
Figure 7: Marital status of the population aged 13 years and over, 1990 and 1995
Figure 8 : Percentage distribution of the population aged 13-29 years by marital status and sex, 1990 and 1995
Figure 9 : Percentage distribution of the population aged 30-59 years by marital status and sex, 1990and 1995

More women than men under age 30 were married, but at aged 30 and above, a higher percentage of men than women remained married.
Figure 10: Percentage of currently married women and men by age groups, 1990 and 1995

Household Head
Women are not usually enumerated as heads of households unless they are either living alone or there are no adult men in the households. Only about 24 percent of the households in Thailand are headed by women, and over half of the women household heads are widowed.
Figure 11 : Percentage distributions of household head by marital status and sex, 1994 and 1996
Table 18 : Percentage distribution of households by age and sex of household head, 1980, 1990 and 1995

3. Health

The improvement in the quality of health service delivery in combination with the achievement and maintenance of a better quality of life among the Thai population has resulted in a remarkable reduction in mortality and in an increase in life expectancy at birth.

Average life expectancy and infant mortality Women live longer than men. However, the gaps between the average expectancy of life for women and men has been widening.

Average life expectancy is the average number of years new born children may be expected to live if subject to mortality risks prevailing for the cross-section of population at the time of their birth.

Table 19 : Life expectancy at birth (in year) 1985,1989,1991 and 1995
Table 20 : Infant Mortality Rate and Child Mortality Rate, 1964-1965, 1974-1975, 1985-1986 and 1996-1997
Figure 12 : Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), 1964-1965, 1974-1975
The death rate among female infants is lower than the rate for male infants. Since 1975, the gap between the two rates has been narrowing.

Reproductive Health Reproductive health has a pervasive effect on women's lives. It also influences their life styles, life changes and personal alternatives. In Thailand, maternal and child care has been remarkably improved. However, along with late marriage, women are also having children at a later age. As a result, older women bearing children, especially the first child, face increasing risk of complications during pregnancy and delivery

Maternal deaths are deaths among women as a result of complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium.
Table 21: Maternal death rate, 1980-1997
Complications of labor and delivery are the main causes of maternal death in Thailand.
Table 22: Distribution of maternal deaths by major causes,1996-1997

Family PlanningThe proportion of currently married women in the reproductive age using contraception is reported to have increased between 1994 and 1997. Women constitute the bulk of the new family planning acceptors; only 7 percent of these acceptors were men.
Table 23 : Percentage of new family planning acceptors by method, 1994 -1997
Figure 13: Percentage of new sterilization acceptors by sex, 1994 - 1997

Malnutrition Time series data indicate that the incidence of malnutrition among infants and pre-school children has decreased considerably between 1991 and 1997. This decline could largely be attributed to improvements in health and education of the mothers.
Table 24 : Percentage of infant and pre-school children suffering from various degrees of malnutrition, 1991-1997
Table 25 : Prevalence of malnutrition among children, 1993 - 1997

Sex Differentials in General HealthSome diseases are related to the sex, while others are probably related to differing exposure to risk factors for women and men. In Thailand, the first two leading causes of death between 1995 and 1997 were heart disease, accidents and poisonings. Men are more exposed to the risk of death from these principal causes than women.
Table 26 : Death by principal cause group, 1996 - 1997
Table 27: Population reported admission to hospital by group of diseased and sex,1995

  AIDS SituationIn recent years, AIDS has become a growing public health concern in the country with several hundred thousands feared to be infected with the HIV virus. However, between September 1984 and May 1999, only 114,837 cases have been officially recorded, of which women patients amounted to 20.7 percent. A very high proportion of men and women infected with HIV virus are in the active reproductive ages. Of great concern is the possibility of infected mothers transferring the disease to their babies.
Figure 14 : AIDS patients by age group and sex, September 1984-May 1999
Table 28 : Distribution of AIDS patients by risk factor and sex, 1994-1998.

4. Education and Training

For the country as a whole, women appear to have a lower level of education than men. The illiteracy rate among women is higher than the rate of men. The proportion of persons with no education is also higher among women than among men. The educational situation of women has improved substantially during the past two decades, at a rate faster than for men. However, the gap between women and men still remains wide.

Literacy: A person is deemed as literate if she or he can read and write with understanding in any language. A person who can merely read but cannot write is not considered as literate.
Table 29: Illiteracy rate by area and sex, 1970, 1980 and 1990
Figure 15: Illiteracy rate by age group and sex, 1980 and 1990
Table 30: Percentage distribution of women and men aged 6 years and over by grade of school completed , 1970, 1980 and 1990

Available data for the population as a whole shows that women appear to have less access to education than men. This is because the figures include the old generation women who generally had limited access to education. But recent statistics and indicators on education, such as number of students in various levels, opportunity rates, indicate that the present generation generally has equal access to education. However, gender inequality still remains in terms of major fields of studies. Women tend to enroll in courses such as liberal arts and home economic which conform to their socially defined roles.

Opportunity rate at educational level A = no. of student at level A X 100 0 no. of population who are in the eligible age for level A
Table 31 :Percentage distribution of students in the formal school system by Educational level and sex Academic year 1996 and 1998
Table 32 : Opportunity rate of students by education level and sex , Academic year 1996 1998
Figure 16: Percentage distribution of students in the formal vocational education under the Ministry of Education by type of course and sex , Academic year 1996 and 1997
Table 33: Participation in courses of private vocational institutes by sex , 1996-1998
Figure17: Percentage distribution of students at undergraduate level in public institutions by sex , 1997 and 1998
Table 34: Percentage distribution of students under thedepartment of non-formal by educational activities , 1997
Table 35: Percentage distribution of graduates under the department of non-formal by educational activities, 1997
Table 36 : Percentage of children and youth 6-24 year of age not attending school by level of education completed and sex,1992 and 1997
Table 37: Percentage of children and youth 13-19 year of age not attending school by reasons for not attending school and sex ,1997
Table 38 : Percentage of children and youth 13-19 year of age not attending school by most of the time used after leaving school and sex ,1997

5. Work and Employment

Work / Employment Unequal Access to Employment for Women and Men Although the number of women and men of working age (13 years and over) is almost equal, more women than men have consistently been classified as "not being in the labor force". Among these, a large proportion are housewives, whose contributions were unrecorded or who were considered as economically inactive.

Persons in the labor force include all persons aged 13 years and over, who during the survey week were employed, unemployed or were classified as seasonally inactive.

Figure 18 : Percentage distribution of persons "in the labor force" and "not in the labor force" by sex, August 1998
Figure 19 : Percentage share among women and men of persons "in the labor force" and "not in the labor force" by labor force status categories, August 1998

The female labor force participation rate in Thailand is relatively high compared to expounding rate in many other countries.
Table 39 : Percentage distribution of persons in the labor force by residence and sex , August 1991-1998
Figure 20 : Labor force participation rates , August 1986-1998
Figure 21 : Labor force participation rates by age and sex, August 1998
Table 40 : Percentage distribution of women and men by labor force status, August 1994 - 1998

Women have consistently had higher rates of unemployment than men over time but between 1997 and 1998 unemployment rates of women and men had almost equal.
Figure 22 : Unemployment rates by sex , August 1989-1998
Table 41 : Percentage distribution of unemployed persons by duration of employment and sex, August 1996-1a998
Table 42 : Percentage distribution of unemployed women and men by duration of uunemployment, August 1996-1998
Both government and private sectors appear to employ more men than women.
Table 43 : Percentage distribution of employed persons in government and private sectors by sex , August 1991-1998

Women's Working World Differs from that of Men in Regard to Employed Status, Type of Work and Amount of Pay
Women's employment status is relatively lower than that of men. Although some well-educated women have achieved considerable occupational advancement, many women still remain concentrated in traditional and relatively low status work
Table 44 : Percentage distribution of employed persons by employment status , August 1996-1998
Today, nearly half of the women in the labor force work as unpaid family workers.
Table 45 : Percentage distribution of employed women and men by employment status , August 1996-1998
ore women than men worked in sales, services, and professional occupations,whereas far more men than women were concentrated in transport, administrative and craft work.
Figure 23 : Percentage distribution of employed persons by occupation , August 1996-1998
About half of the women and men in the labor force work as farmers.
Table 46 : Percentage distribution of employed women and men by major occupational group , August 1996-1998
Table 47: Percentage distribution of employed persons by industry , August 1996-1998
Table 48 : Percentage distribution of employed persons by employment status, sex and occupation , August 1998
Table 49 : Percentage share among employed women and employed men by employment status, sex and occupation , August 1998

Working in Private Section In 1998 the establishment, women's employment status was lower than men. More men than women worked in Director, Department Manager and Supervisor, whereas far more women than men were concentrated in Officer.
The average monthly pays per capita by level of working status were found that men were recieved more than women.
Table 50 : Percentage of worker in private section by size of establishment, level of position and sex, 1998
Table 51 : Average monthly income of worker by size of establishment, level of position and sex, 1998

6. Economic Status

Nowadays women participate in economic activity more than in the past. Although the remarkable growth of the Thai economy during the past decade has provided women with increased income-earning opportunities,a high proportion of women in the workforce continue to be classified as unpaid family workers on farms or other family business enterprises.
Table 52 : Distribution of unpaid family workers by industry and sex, August 1998
In 1998, the majority of employed persons earned less than 128 baht per day which was lower than the official minimum wage during that time. This proportion was higher among women (61.7 %) than men (55.2 %).
Table 53 : Employed persons by income and sex, August 1998
Figure 24 : Percentage distribution of employed persons by income and sex for selected occupation, August 1998
Table 54 : Percentage distribution of employed women and men by income group and occupation, August 1998

Household Income
Households headed by women are generally poorer than those headed by men, but it is contrary in 1996. The reason for this may be, the households headed by women gained income from current transfer (pension, scholarship and others, etc.)
Table 55 : Average monthly income of household by source of income and sex of household head, 1996
Table 56 : Average monthly income of household by socio-economic class, residence and sex of household head, 1996
Household Expenditures
The expenditures of households headed by women are less than those headed by men. The expenditure for food and beverage is highest. The households headed by men spend almost twice for cigarette and alcoholic drink than those headed by women. The other expenditures are not so different.
Table 57 : Average monthly expenditures of houselolds by type of expenditure, residence and sex of household head,1996

7. Dicision Making


Political Power
Women's access to political power has been severely limited, with women constituting less than 6 percent of the total number of members of parliament. This is so partly because of the low participation of women in politics, and partly because of the unequal opportunities for women and men. Many factors influence the chance of winning in a national election; qualifications of the candidate; political party affiliation; resources available and number of candidates competing. Sex of the candidate may not be an important factor. Statistics shows that being a woman does not limit the chance of being successful in a national elections. However, other than national elections, women appear to have less opportunities than men in sharing power in politics. Thai women were given the right to vote or to stand for election in 1932, but women were first elected to parliament only in 1949.
Table 58 : Number and percentage distribution of members of parliament by sex, 1986 - 1996
The number of women candidates at national elections has increased over the years.
Table 59 : Number and percentage distribution of candidates for parliamentary election by sex, 1986 - 1996
Table 60 : Women and men candidates elected as a percentage of number of candidates contesting national elections, 1986 - 1996
In1996, more women than men voted at the national elections. The proportions of actual voters to eligible voters for women were also higher than men.
Table 61 : Percentage distribution of voters in the national election, 1996
Table 62 : Actual voters as percentage of eligible voters, 1996
Very few women were appointed by the government to be senators, whose role is to assist the elected members of parliament on legislative matters.
Table 63 : Number and percentage distribution of senators by sex, 1988 - 1996

Participation in Administration
Women have limited opportunities for promotion to higher level positions. Women officers are mostly concentrated in the lower levels, whereas a very high proportion of positions at the higher management and executive levels are occupied by men.
Table 64 : Number and percentage distribution of government officials in the diplomatic service by sex, 1997 and 1998
Women's participation in the decision-making process at local level through either appointed (Provincial Administrators) or elected positions (Local Administrators) is lower than men. It was only in 1995 that women were appointed as Provincial Governor and Assistant District Chief Officer for the first time.
Table 65 : Number and percentage distribution of provincial administrators, 1999
Table 66 : Number and percentage distribution of local administrators, 1999

8. Crime and Violence

Crime and violence have to call for a special attention. Violence taking place at home or at work is rarely reported, while other reported cases of violence are under-reported.
Table 67 : Number of inmates by sex , 1993 -1998
Between 1991 and 1997, men who commit suicide are more than women.
Table 68 : Reported cases of suicides, 1991 - 1997
Table 69 : Reported cases of suicides by sex and marital status,1993 - 1997
Table 70 : Number of prostitutes by place of services,1989 - 1998